U.S. ACTORS PROMOTING “DEMOCRACY” IN THE MIDDLE EAST

It is very hard trying or attempting to make the public aware of what is happening in the Middle East and why.

If Hillary Clintons speech at the NDI was not enough to prove it where she stated :

” I think it is important to recognise that back when the streets of Arab Cities were quiet, the National Democratic Institute was already on the ground, building relationships, supporting the voices that would turn a long Arab winter into a new Arab Spring.”

Now don’t take my word for it, and watch and listen to Secretary Clinton’s speech for yourself here .  As a student I was always taught to read between the lines of every word spoken, of every word written and to understand the context and the timing of those words and the base of each word.

If that wasn’t enough for you I will go on but before I go on, I need the public to understand that Democracy as it is being promoted does not exist.

Again an explanation of the word democracy for those who don’t understand the real meaning.

The fundamental concept behind democracy is self- government, the word itself is derived from the greek word demokratia, which means; control (kratos) by the people (demos). In this way, democracy refers to the fact that, all attempts to separate state and society should be rejected, and that democracy is a form of government in which the people, in some fashion, control society.

Because democracy is ’control by the people’, it applies to all in society, therefore the concept of democracy must rely upon several basic principles in order to succeed. The first principal of democracy is based upon an inherent equality between citizens, which means that everyone should be treated with absolute uniformity and with a complete absence of all forms of discrimination. The second principal is built upon the individual’s right to self determination, which as a negative notion of freedom encourages the absence of force and the misuse of power. Finally, democracy builds upon the principal of equal opportunity, which, as a positive notion of freedom, ensures that all citizens are furnished with enough resources for them to be able to function in society. If there is too big a gap between the various social strata of a society it will have a negative effect on the entire democracy.

And a little knowledge will help you understand before the matter of the exporting a democracy can be looked at we first need to read as to HOW it is implemented in a nation that refers to this word in every sentence yet “exports” it . First read the pledge of allegiance.

The Pledge of Allegiance

I pledge allegiance to the Flag,  of the United States of America and to the Republic for which it stands,
One Nation, under God Indivisible, with Liberty and Justice for All.

The United States is, indeed, a republic, not a democracy.

Accurately defined, a democracy is a form of government in which the people decide policy matters directly–through town hall meetings or by voting on ballot initiatives and referendums.

A republic, on the other hand, is a system in which the people choose representatives who, in turn, make policy decisions on their behalf. In this case the United States.

The Framers of the Constitution were altogether fearful of pure democracy. Everything they read and studied taught them that pure democracies “have ever been spectacles of turbulence and contention; have ever been found incompatible with personal security or the rights of property; and have in general been as short in their lives as they have been violent in their deaths”(Federalist No. 10).

The Pledge of Allegiance includes the phrase: “and to the republic for which it stands.” Is the United States of America a republic? I always thought it was a democracy?

In the strictest sense of the word, the system of government established by the Constitution was never intended to be a”democracy.” This is evident not only in the wording of the Pledge of Allegiance but in the Constitution itself which declares that “The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government” (Article IV, Section 4). Moreover, the scheme of representation and the various mechanisms for selecting representatives established by the Constitution were clearly intended to produce a republic, not a democracy.

To the extent that the United States of America has moved away from its republican roots and become more “democratic,” it has strayed from the intentions of the Constitution’s authors. Whether or not the trend toward more
direct democracy would be smiled upon by the Framers depends on the answer to another question. Are the American people today sufficiently better informed and otherwise equipped to be wise and prudent democratic citizens than were American citizens in the late 1700s? By all accounts, the answer to this second question is an emphatic “no.”

For more  here and here .

On the 15th March, 2006 Carnegie Endowment For International Peace wrote the following fact sheet on promoting democracy in the Middle East. Funnily enough a little later on in June of 2006, the term “New Middle East” was introduced to the world  in Tel Aviv by U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice (who was credited by the Western media for coining the term) in replacement of the older and more imposing term, the “Greater Middle East.” Read more here .

Carnegie Endowment is supposed to stand for International Peace. I would state them standing for “pieces”.

The Fact sheet on the Middle East states the following:

U.S. efforts to promote democracy in the Middle East have several components. The first and most visible component is the statements issued by the president and other high government officials.  In addition, there is quiet diplomatic engagement with several countries in the region.  The third, less understood component consists of a diverse array of assistance programs implemented by governmental and non-governmental actors.  This fact-sheet provides an overview of these actors and their activities.

Most democracy promotion programs are funded and designed by the U.S. government, although some private foundations also provide financial support.  The U.S. government does not implement projects directly, but relies on a variety of non-profit and for-profit implementing agencies.

The first section of this fact-sheet provides a brief overview of the major funding and implementing organizations; the second section provides more detailed information on each organization’s mission, establishment, funding, and projects.

The list of government actors is complete. The list of private funders and implementing agencies is not exhaustive, but only provides information on those most active in the Middle East at this time.

OVERVIEW

I) FUNDING ORGANIZATIONS U.S. Government/ U.S. Department of State

  • Middle East Partnership Initiative, in the Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs (MEPI, NEA).
    Founded in 2002, MEPI funds programs to promote political, economic, educational and women’s empowerment in the Middle East
  • Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor (DRL). Founded in 1976, DRL funds programs and releases reports to promote democracy, human rights, religious freedom, and labor rights.

U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)

  • Asia and Near East Bureau (ANE). Founded with USAID in 1961, ANE disburses development funds to in-country mission offices; emphasizes trade, education, health, and democracy.
  • Office of Transition Initiatives (OTI). Founded in 1994, OTI gives fast, flexible aid in volatile situations to promote democracy and peace.
  • Office of Democracy and Governance (DG). Founded in 1994, DG offers field support and technical leadership for USAID and other DG programs; provides a small amount of direct program management.

Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC).

A government corporation that supports the development of democracy by granting aid on the basis of criteria such political rights,
accountability, rule of law, and control of corruption.  The MCC does not specifically fund democracy-related proposals.

Special Multilateral Policy Initiatives

Partnership for Progress and a Common Future with the Region of the Broader Middle East and North
Africa/Broader Middle East and North Africa (BMENA) Initiative.

Aims to strengthen freedom, democracy and prosperity throughout the broader Middle East through a range of mechanisms
incorporating G8 governments, regional governments, civil society and business.  It includes the Forum for the Future, the Foundation for the Future and the Fund for the Future.

Quasi-Governmental Organizations (Organizations that were established by and are funded by the U.S. Congress, but operate independently.)

National Endowment for Democracy (NED). Founded in 1983 to promote democratic procedures, institutions and values abroad.

United States Institute of Peace (USIP). Founded in 1984, USIP strives to promote peace and curb violent conflict through
education, grant making, programming and research.

Private Organizations

Open Society Institute (OSI). Founded in 1984, OSI gives grants to promote democratic governance; human rights; and economic, legal, and social reform; also acts as a coordinating body for the network of individual Soros Foundations.

Ford Foundation. Founded in 1936, Ford gives grants to organizations in the aim of strengthening democratic values, reducing poverty and injustice, promoting international cooperation and advancing human achievement.

II) IMPLEMENTING ORGANIZATIONS

Non-profit organizations

National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (NDI). Founded in 1983, NDI aims to strengthen and expand
democracy worldwide by providing practical assistance to leaders advancing democratic, values, institutions and procedures.

International Republican Institute (IRI). Founded in 1983, IRI seeks to promote and strengthen democratic ideals and institutions.

American Center for International Labor Solidarity (ACILS, or “Solidarity Center”).
Founded in 1983, ACILS promotes democracy and respect for workers’ rights through public awareness, training, and the development of democratic unions.

Center for International Private Enterprise (CIPE). Founded in 1983, CIPE endeavors to strengthen democracy through market-oriented reform by use of outreach, technical assistance, grassroots development and capacity building.

America-Mideast Educational and Training Services, Inc. (AMIDEAST).
Founded in 1951, AMIDEAST strives to strengthen cooperation and understanding between America and the Middle East, by providing educational exchanges as well as training and institution building in business and governance.

Freedom House. Founded in 1941, Freedom House aspires to promote freedom, democracy and the rule of law through analysis, advocacy and action.

IFES. Founded in 1987, IFES attempts to build democratic societies through technical assistance and by acting as a source of
knowledge and best practices.

Carter Center. Founded in 1982 by former U.S. president Jimmy Carter, the Carter Center seeks broadly to alleviate human
suffering through human rights, democracy, conflict prevention and resolution, and health.

Research Triangle Institute (RTI). Founded in 1958, RTI aims to improve the human condition through research, consulting
and training in a wide variety of sectors such as health, pharmaceuticals, education, environment and international development.

For-profit organizations (Many for-profit development consulting firms implement USAID-funded democracy
programs around the world.  Some of the most active such firms working in the Middle East are listed below.)

Chemonics. Founded in 1975, Chemonics aims to help those in developing countries live “healthier, more productive and more
independent lives” through areas such as health, environment, finance, crisis recovery and governance.

Development Alternatives, Inc. (DAI). Founded in 1970, DAI aims to provide social and economic development solutions to the private and public sectors of developing and transitional countries.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

I) FUNDING ORGANIZATIONS

U.S. Government

U.S. Department of State. Is the lead foreign affairs agency of the United States and has a primary role in developing and implementing foreign policy. It also supports the foreign affairs activities of other U.S. government entities and provides important services to U.S. citizens and foreigners seeking to visit or immigrate to the United States. (www.state.gov)

Middle East Partnership Initiative (MEPI) in the Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs (NEA)

  • Establishment: A presidential initiative created in 2002.
  • Funding: U.S. Congress. It has received an annual average of $88 million since its establishment.  MEPI also receives some funds from the private sector.
  • Mission: To use the experience and resources of the United States to bolster the reform movement in the Middle East.
  • Profile
    • MEPI funds programs to promote its four pillars—political, economic, educational, and women’s empowerment.  It operates in partnership with governments of the Middle East, academic institutions, the private sector, and non-governmental organizations. Grantees include major U.S. democracy promotion organizations as well as local non-governmental organizations.
    • MEPI also runs a small grants program that directly supports grassroots organizations.
    • In FY05, the political pillar was funded at $22 million, the economic pillar at $23 million, the educational pillar at
      $14.4 million, and the women’s pillar at $15 million.  For FY04 these numbers were $20 million, $32 million, $22 million, and $15.5 million, respectively.
    • Electoral monitoring assistance; strengthening civil society; entrepreneurial training; expanding the trade capacities of Arab countries; promoting English language study; university partnerships; raising the political, advocacy and communication skills of women candidates; and empowering grassroots women NGOs.
    • Website: http://mepi.state.gov

Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor (DRL)

  • Establishment: Established by a congressional mandate in 1976 during the Carter Administration as the Bureau of Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs, and was reorganized in 1994 and renamed the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor.
  • Funding: U.S. Congress, through the following mechanisms: (1) the Human Rights and Democracy Fund (HRDF), which is
    the DRL’s allocation of the Economic Support Fund (ESF), an earmark in the International Affairs Budget; and (2) regional democracy funds.  The HRDF stood at about $13 million until FY2003, when funding levels jumped to $36.4 million; the fund stood at $48 million in FY2005.
  • Mission: To support and promote democracy programs around the world and act as the “the nation’s primary democracy advocate.”   DRL aims to be a source of democracy promotion funding as well as programming.
  • Profile
    • DRL is composed of the subsidiary offices of Multilateral Affairs, Asylum Affairs, International Religious Freedom, and International Labor Affairs, each responsible for policy and implementation in the area of its mandate.
    • It is responsible for overseeing the Human Rights and Democracy Fund (HRDF), which focuses on geo-strategically
      important countries and the use of innovative, cutting-edge programs as a catalyst to improve human rights and promote democracy.  DRL also uses Regional Democracy Funds to support democratization programs such as election monitoring and parliamentary development.
    • DRL favors projects that have an immediate, short-term impact but have potential for funding beyond HRDF
      resources. The fund is also used to promote regional initiatives of importance to the U.S. Government.
    • Makes grants to implementing organizations for a wide variety of programs such as legal education, labor rights, and citizen participation, human rights monitoring; democracy promotion, election administration and media support.
    • DRL also compiles and publishes the Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, Supporting Human Rights and Democracy: the U.S. Record, and the Annual Report on International Religious Freedom.
    • Website: http://www.state.gov/g/drl/

U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID).

USAID has the dual purpose of furthering democracy and free markets while improving the lives of those in developing countries.  With its roots in the Marshall Plan reconstruction of Europe after World War II, and Truman’s 1950 Act of International Development, which established USAID’s various precursor organizations, the agency was created by President John F. Kennedy in 1961. USAID operates under 9 principles: ownership, capacity building, sustainability, selectivity, assessment, results, partnership, flexibility, and accountability. (www.usaid.gov)

Asia and Near East Bureau (ANE)

  • Establishment: Founded as part of USAID in 1961.
  • Funding: U.S. Congress, as part of the larger USAID budget, negotiated in consultation with the U.S. Department of State and Office of Management and Budget. ANE also receiving funding from several accounts co-managed with the U.S. Department of State.  In FY2004 ANE received almost $4 billion for work in the Middle East and North Africa; its FY2005 request was much smaller at about $1.3 billion.
  • Mission: Democracy promotion is just one part of ANE and USAID’s overall development mission, which is to promote “peace and stability by fostering economic growth, protecting human health, providing humanitarian assistance, and enhancing democracy in developing countries.”
  • Profile
    • The Asia and Near East Bureau emphasizes trade, education, health and democracy. ANE distributes most of its funds to in-country mission offices in consultation with those offices, the U.S. Department of State and others.  Mission offices largely control these funds, with ANE oversight.  ANE also administers some programs at the regional level.
    • ANE and the mission offices operate in close partnership with other U.S. government organizations, foreign governments, businesses, NGOs, and universities.
    • ANE and its mission offices oversee and implement a wide variety of development programs; those focusing on democracy aim to support local governance, encourage decentralization, fight corruption, discourage trafficking, assist democratic reform, mitigate conflict, strengthen fragile states and increase women’s participation in government.
  • Website: http://www.usaid.gov/locations/asia_near_east/

Office of Transition Initiatives (OTI)

  • Establishment: After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, a series of rapid transitions occurred that were unsuited
    to traditional forms of aid.  OTI was established in 1994 to meet the challenges of these transitions.
  • Funding
    • U.S. Congress; unlike the rest of USAID’s democracy promotion funds, OTI funds are earmarked in the congressional
      budget.
    • OTI’s appropriations have averaged around $50 million since FY1999; that figure is expected to rise to $325
      million for FY2006 because funding formerly requested under Development Assistance for Afghanistan, Ethiopia, Haiti and Sudan has been requested under OTI.
  • Mission: To provide fast, flexible, short-term assistance in response to rapidly changing conditions on the ground in countries undergoing political crisis or transition in order to take advantage of windows of opportunity to build democracy and peace.
  • Profile
    • OTI operates under a distinct mode of operations that encourages “a culture of risk-taking, political orientation and
      swift response” with a continually evolving strategic approach.  OTI also uses a unique contracting mechanism
      that allows it quickly start up in new countries and direct grants to small indigenous organizations.
    • Projects include re-integration of ex-combatants, backing alternative media and information campaigns, local anti-corruption and good governance efforts, helping governments form action-plans for reform, civilian control of the military, civil society building, human rights work, resource management, and local ethnic conflict management.
    • In the Middle East, OTI currently funds projects in Iraq to support civil society, good governance, conflict
      mitigation, and human rights and transitional justice.  OTI has also worked in the West Bank/Gaza.
  • Website: http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/cross-cutting_programs/transition_initiatives/index.html

Democracy and Governance Office

  • Establishment: Founded in May 1994 as the Center for Democracy and Governance, it became the Office of Democracy and
    Governance in 2001.
  • Funding: U.S. Congress, as part of the larger USAID budget.  The DG Office received $29 million in FY2005.
  • Mission: The DG Office lists its overall primary objective as making democracy and governance programs more effective
    and strategic both at USAID and elsewhere. It helps USAID field missions to design and implement democracy promotion programs, aims to provide technical and intellectual leadership in the field of democracy development, and manages some programs directly.
  • Profile
    • The DG Office’s three primary activities are (1) field support: the DG Office helps USAID missions design, implement and evaluate democracy promotion programs; (2) technical leadership: the DG Office researches, develops, maintains and disseminates a knowledge base on democracy promotion best practices; and (3) program management: the DG Office directly manages some USAID democracy and governance programs.  In addition, the DG Office often leads democracy and governance assessments in areas in which USAID has limited or no staff presence.
    • Democracy and governance programs seek to strengthen the capacity of reform-minded governments, non-governmental actors, and/or citizens in order to develop and support responsive and accountable democratic states and institutions. DG programs also promote democratic transitions in countries that are not reform-minded.
    • The Office of Democracy and Governance classifies its work into four interrelated focus areas (rule of law, elections and political processes, civil society and governance).
    • Rule of law programs include legal reform, justice administration, and increasing the accessibility of the justice
      system; election assistance programs include training poll watchers, improving election administration, and civic education; civil society assistance programs include increasing citizen participation in the policy process, enhancing
      independent media, and promoting a democratic culture; governance programs include strengthening legislatures, enhancing local governance and eradicating corruption.
  • Website: http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/democracy_and_governance/

Millennium Challenge Corporation

  • Establishment: Established in January 2004 to administer the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA), a sum of development aid provided to countries that meet criteria of economic freedom and good governance.
  • Funding: U.S. Congress; the Millennium Challenge Account was funded at almost $1 billion for FY04 and $1.5 billion for FY05.  $3 billion was requested for FY06 and the Bush administration pledged to eventually increase MCA funding to $5 billion.
  • Mission: The MCC’s primary mission is to achieve economic growth and reduce poverty.  However, by linking economic assistance to government responsibility, the MCC offers a strong incentive form social, political and economic reform.
  • Profile
    • The MCC is a government corporation, managed by a Chief Executive Officer appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. It is overseen by a Board of Directors composed of the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Treasury, the U.S. Trade Representative, the CEO and four public members also appointed by the President.
    • To receive MCA funds countries must meet the three criteria of “governing justly”, “investing in people” and “promoting economic freedom”. The MCC uses 16 indicators to determine eligibility.  Projects are funded on a
      country-by-country basis in accordance with each one’s overall growth and poverty reduction strategy.  The
      MCC will monitor programs for performance and financial accountability.
    • Morocco is the only country in the Middle East currently eligible to apply for funding.
  • Website: www.mca.gov

Special Multilateral Policy Initiatives

Partnership for Progress and a Common Future with the Region of the Broader Middle East and North Africa/Broader Middle East and North Africa (BMENA) Initiative

  • Establishment: A joint partnership between the G-8 countries and the governments and people of the Broader
    Middle East and North Africa (Afghanistan, Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Oman, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen) at the G-8 Sea Island, Georgia summit in June 2004.
  • Funding: Member countries.
  • Mission: To strengthen freedom, democracy and prosperity throughout the broader Middle East through cooperation among G8 governments, regional governments, civil society and business.
  • Profile
    • BMENA encompasses a broad range of mechanisms, from venues for dialogue to institutions for grant making, analysis and training.  It has seven major initiatives, and three major vehicles.
    • The initiatives are the Democracy Assistance Dialogue, Microfinance Initiative, Literacy Initiative, Business and Entrepreneurship Training Initiative, Task Force on Investment, Private Enterprise Development Facility at the International Financial Corporation, and Network of Funds.
    • The Forum for the Future, founded in 2004, is an ongoing dialogue among G8, BMENA, and other partner countries in pursuit of the expansion of democracy and freedom.  It serves as a venue for regional civil society and business groups to voice their ideas and goals to their governments in the hopes of furthering reform in the areas of democracy, civil society and education.  The first forum (in 2004) focused on government transparency, women in the workplace, legal reform and human rights. The second forum (in 2005) focused on the two themes of “civil society and democracy” and “knowledge and education”.
    • The Foundation for the Future, announced in 2005 at the second Forum for the Future, will provide grants and technical assistance to help civil society organizations strengthen the rule of law, protect basic civil liberties, and ensure greater opportunity for health and education.
    • The Fund for the Future, announced in 2005 at the second Forum for the Future, is a joint venture between governments and private sector in G8 countries, partner countries, and the countries of the Broader Middle East, that will target investments to help small and medium-sized businesses gain capital in order to create jobs and economic growth.  Initial investments will go to Morocco and Egypt (the Fund’s initial donors).

Quasi-Governmental Organizations

National Endowment for Democracy

  • Establishment: Established by the U.S. Congress in November 1983.
  • Funding: U.S. Congress.  Its budget averaged $30 million until 2004, when Congress approved a doubling of that amount at the recommendation of the Bush administration; in FY2005 the Endowment’s total budget reached $79 million.  In addition to a core fund, the U.S. Congress allocates funds for countries and regions of particular interest.
  • Mission: “The Endowment is guided by the belief that freedom is a universal human aspiration that can be realized through the development of democratic institutions, procedures, and values.”
  • Profile
    • An autonomous, private, non-profit, grant-making foundation, NED distributes funds to private organizations working to promote democracy abroad. It has an ongoing grant-making relationship with four affiliated organizations—two created by the Democratic and Republican parties and two by the business community—established shortly after NED’s creation.  They are the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (NDI), the International Republican Institute (IRI), the Center for International Private Enterprise (CIPE), and the American Center for International Labor Solidarity (ACILS).
    • Project areas include civil society, independent media, human rights, rule of law, women’s participation, civic education, and local governance.
    • NED also initiated, and serves as the Secretariat for, the World Movement for Democracy, a global network with the aim of promoting democracy that is made up of democratic activists, practitioners, and policy makers.
  • Website: www.ned.org

United States Institute of Peace (USIP)

  • Establishment: Founded by the United States Institute of Peace Act, passed on October 14, 1984.
  • Funding: U.S. Congress.  Funding levels have risen from around $16 million in FY2003 to around $23 million in 2005.  Congress recently approved $100 million to build the institute a permanent headquarters, with additional funds to be sought from the private sector.
  • Mission: “To support the development, transmission, and use of knowledge to promote peace and curb violent international conflict”, through the “widest possible range of education and training, basic and applied research opportunities, and
    peace information services on the means to promote international peace and the resolution of conflict among the nations and peoples of the world without recourse to violence.”
  • Profile
    • It is an “independent, nonprofit, national institute”, organized as a corporation and governed by a bipartisan Board of Directors who are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate.
    • The Institute’s congressional mandate includes six activities: (1) Expanding society’s knowledge about the changing nature and conduct of international relations and the management of international conflicts; (2) Supporting policymakers in the Legislative and Executive Branches;
      (3) Facilitating the resolution of international disputes; (4) Training international affairs professionals from the United States and abroad in conflict prevention, management, and resolution techniques;
      (5) Strengthening the education of emerging generations of young people in the United States and in foreign zones of conflict; (6) Increasing public understanding about the nature of international conflicts, as well as about approaches to their prevention, management, and resolution.
    • The Institute fulfills its mandate through a wide variety of programs, including congressional and public
      outreach; education; fellowships and grants; peace and stability operations; rule of law research and guidance and professional training.  It also currently runs special initiatives on the Balkans, Iraq, the Muslim World, the Philippines,
      religion and peacemaking, and the use of information technology in managing conflict.
    • The institute’s work in the Middle East includes several initiatives in Iraq (civil society and leadership grants, training of officials, and the collection of oral histories) and in Israel-Palestine (joint education workshops and a legal dialogue
      between the two justice ministries). The Muslim World Initiative seeks to decrease misunderstanding between the United States and many parts of the Muslim World and give voice to those in the Muslim World who advocate cooperation and non-violence.
  • Website: www.usip.org

Private Organizations

Open Society Institute (OSI)

  • Establishment: In 1984, George Soros began establishing foundations in Central and Eastern Europe to help countries make the transition from communism.  OSI was created in 1993 to coordinate and support their work.
  • Funding: Both OSI and the Soros Foundations are funded by George Soros and philanthropic trusts established by the Soros family. Individual Soros Foundations often receive support from sources other than OSI.  Total expenditures average between $400 and $500 million per year.
  • Mission: “To shape public policy to promote democratic governance, human rights and economic, legal and social
    reform.  On a local level, OSI implements a range of initiatives to support the rule of law, education, public health, and independent media. At the same time, OSI works to build alliances across borders and continents on issues such as combating corruption and rights abuses.”
  • Profile
    • Originally concentrated in the former Soviet Union, OSI has since expanded its work to other areas of the world, currently operating in more than 60 countries (including the United States).  OSI both runs programs and issues grants.  It operates primarily out of New York and Budapest.  OSI programs also focus on arts, culture, education, and social welfare, the development of market economies, English language instruction, media reform, health, and women
      and youth issues.
    • Soros Foundations are autonomous institutions founded to initiate and support OSI activities.  They are run by a local board of directors and staff, who determine their activities in consultation with OSI.  The network of foundations
      stretches across 29 countries, as well as Kosovo, Montenegro, and one foundation for Southern Africa and one foundation for Western Africa.
    • OSI’s Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Initiative makes grants in the region on the following issues:
      arts and culture, human rights, information, media, and women.  It concentrates specifically on Egypt,
      Iran, Iraq, and Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories.  The MENA Initiative also provides fellowships and scholarships with the aim of helping students and scholars to improve their home communities.
  • Website: www.soros.org and on Soros and the truth behind Soros read HERE

Ford Foundation

  • Establishment: In 1936 by Henry Ford and his son Edsel Ford.
  • Funding: The Foundation uses funds garnered from an endowment, originally donated by the Fords, currently valued at $10.5 billion.  Over the two year funding cycle that ended in 2001, the Ford Foundation’s Cairo office disbursed 272 institutional grants totaling over $35 million and 62 individual grants totaling more than $1.4 million.
  • Mission: To strengthen democratic values, reduce poverty and injustice, promote international cooperation and advance human achievement.
  • Profile
    • A local philanthropy in the state
      of Michigan until 1950, the Ford Foundation now operates worldwide.  It is governed by an international board of trustees with twelve overseas offices and headquarters in New York.
    • Programs and grants fall into the areas of economic development; community and resource development; human
      rights; governance and civil society; education, sexuality and religion; and media, arts and culture.
    • Ford’s current work in the Middle East focuses on Egypt, Palestine, and programs that benefit the region as a whole. The Foundation maintains an office in Cairo, whose staff is appointed locally and is composed mainly of professionals from the Arab world.  This office also makes grants to organizations for regional and country-specific projects, as
      well as to organizations working in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip that promote good governance, human rights, civic participation, social equity and cultural revitalization.
    • The foundation also gives grants to prominent universities throughout the Middle East, runs an international fellowship program, and supports community leaders worldwide.
  • Website: www.fordfound.org

II) IMPLEMENTING ORGANIZATIONS

Non-profit Organizations

National Democratic Institute (NDI)

  • Establishment: Established in 1983 as one of NED’s four affiliated institutions.
  • Funding: NED, USAID, MEPI, agencies of foreign governments, and private contributions.
  • Mission: “Working to strengthen and expand democracy worldwide.”
  • Profile: NDI is a private, non-profit organization loosely affiliated with the U.S. Democratic Party.  It provides practical assistance to political and civic leaders advancing democratic values, practices and institutions. Headquartered in Washington, DC, it maintains fifty field offices around the world.
  • Projects: NDI’s programs focus on democratic governance, political party building, citizen participation through voter education, electoral monitoring, women’s participation, and promoting the principles of transparency and accountability in legislative bodies.
  • Website: www.ndi.org

International Republican Institute (IRI)

  • Establishment: Established in 1983 as one of NED’s four affiliated institutions.
  • Funding: Primarily NED and USAID; IRI also receives some funding from non-US agencies and private supporters.
  • Mission: To promote and strengthen democratic ideals and institutions, individually structured to meet host country needs.
  • Profile: A non-partisan organization, IRI is loosely affiliated with the U.S. Republican Party.  It originally focused its work in Latin America but now operates in more than 60 countries worldwide.
  • Projects: Among IRI’s broad-ranging democracy building programs are those focused on political party development, election observation, leadership training, public and media relations, and women’s political participation.
  • Website: www.iri.org

American Center for International Labor Solidarity, or Solidarity Center

  • Establishment: Established in 1983 as one of NED’s four affiliated institutions, it was founded as the Free Trade Union Institute and reorganized in 1997 as the Solidarity Center.
  • Funding: USAID, NED, U.S. Department of State, U.S. Department of Labor, the AFL-CIO, private foundations and national and international labor organizations.  Its overall budget for FY2004 was $20 million.
  • Mission: “To help build a global labor movement by strengthening the economic and political power of workers around the world through effective, independent and democratic unions.”  It aims, with its partners, to “promote democracy, freedom, and respect for worker rights in global trade, investment, and development policies and in the lending practices of international financial institutions”, to “raise public awareness about the world’s most vulnerable workers”, and to “help the world’s workers secure a voice in the developing global economy.”
  • Profile
    • In response to partner requests, the Center provides education, training, research, legal support, organizational assistance, and other resources.  Programs are implemented and partners (workers, unions and community organizations in developing societies) chosen by the Center and the AFL-CIO. While the organization’s headquarters are in Washington, DC, the Solidarity Center sponsors programs in more than 60 countries and has 29 field offices.
    • The Solidarity Center runs projects focused on child labor, conflict resolution, corporate accountability, export processing zones, global economy, workers’ unions, political participation, safety and health, women’s equality and worker rights.
  • Website: www.solidaritycenter.org

Center for International Private Enterprise (CIPE)

  • Establishment: Established in 1983 as one of NED’s four affiliated institutions.
  • Funding: NED, USAID, and private sector and other organizations.
  • Mission: Strengthen democracy around the globe through private enterprise and market-oriented reform.
  • Profile
    • CIPE is an independent non-profit affiliated with the U.S. Chamber of Commerce. It focuses on institutional
      reform and works in four principle areas: a grants program supporting grassroots networks in developing countries, a communications strategy, capacity building programs, and technical assistance through field offices (CIPE currently maintains seven field offices in key transitional areas that coordinate regional efforts).
    • CIPE partners with private sector organizations such as business associations and think tanks in partner countries, attempting to creatively employ concepts like transparency, accountability, fairness and responsibility.
    • CIPE’s projects in the Middle East seek to encourage business participation in the policymaking process, modernize the private sector by opening governance processes within family firms, and strengthen corporate governance practices.  In 2005, CIPE built its strategy on the region’s internal momentum for reform through strategic partnerships with business associations, economic policy institutes, and economic journalists.
  • Website: www.cipe.org

America-Mideast Educational and Training Services, Inc. (AMIDEAST)

  • Establishment: Founded in 1951 by a group of distinguished American intellectuals who were concerned about
    U.S. foreign policy imbalances they felt were caused by misconceptionsabout the Arab world and the greater Middle East.
  • Funding: USAID, U.S. Dept of State, foreign governments (including those in the Middle East), foreign NGOs, private foundations, corporations, and private individuals.
  • Mission: To strengthen “mutual understanding and cooperation between Americans and the peoples of the Middle East and North Africa.”
  • Profile
    • AMIDEAST’s original aim was the exchange of people and accurate information between the United States and
      the Middle East.  By 1961, it had opened nine country offices throughout the Middle East, mainly offering advice and placement for students seeking to study in the United States.  The organization soon expanded into human resource development, technical training and professional development.  Over the years the organization has moved into rule of law and institutional development programs.
    • AMIDEAST currently operates in almost every country in the Middle East, with field offices in Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, West Bank/Gaza and Yemen. By the end of the 1990s, three-quarters of all staff were based in field offices.
    • AMIDEAST runs institutionaldevelopment programs for public and private institutions throughout the Middle East.  Rule of law programs have focused on strengthening judicial and administrative aspects of legal systems.  AMIDEAST also supports NGOs and helps to build mutually beneficial bridges between NGOs and governments.  It aims to increase the participation of women and youth through training.
  • Website: www.amideast.org

Freedom House

  • Establishment: Established in 1941 to lobby the United States to fight fascism in World War II.
  • Funding: U.S. Department of State, USAID, and private sources.  Its FY04 budget was $16 million.
  • Mission: Freedom House seeks to function “as a catalyst for freedom, democracy and the rule of law through its analysis, advocacy and action.”
  • Profile
    • Freedom House works directly with democratic reformers in promoting civil society development, human rights
      defense, media support and encouraging open government.  It runs programs in over a dozen countries, hosts the Center for Religious Freedom and conducts regional and worldwide campaigns.
    • The organization is well known for its annual publications, especially Freedom in the World, a worldwide assessment of political rights; it also publishes Freedom of the Press, Nations in Transit, and Countries at the Crossroads, which include analyses of countries of the Middle East and North Africa.
    • In the Middle East, Freedom House works to promote women’s rights in Jordan; in Algeria it works to safeguard human rights and promote cooperation between the government and civil society.
  • Website: www.freedomhouse.org

IFES

  • Establishment: 1987, originally dedicated to election assistance.
  • Funding: Bilateral and multilateral development agencies, including USAID, the United Nations, DFID and the OSCE.  IFES also receives funding from private corporations, individuals, and foundations.
  • Mission: IFES’s stated mission is to build democratic societies.
  • Profile
    • IFES is an international nonprofit headquartered in Washington, DC with an affiliate in London and 20 offices registered in other countries. Originally dedicated solely to elections, IFES has expanded its work into more comprehensive democracy building solutions around the world.  The organization also assists state governments in the United States with their election systems and HAVA compliance.
    • IFES primarily provides technical assistance in election administration, civil society building, human rights, rule of law and governance. It runs two programs to integrate its services, the Center for Transitional and Post-Conflict Governance and the F. Clinton White Applied Research Center for Democracy and Elections.
    • IFES also acts as a knowledge bank on democracy promotion by publishing research and public opinion surveys and maintaining several websites offering technical knowledge and election information.
    • IFES has offices and country-specific programs in Yemen, Iraq, Jordan, Egypt and the
      Palestinian territories. Regionally, IFES works on election support, rule of law promotion, and support of disability organizations.
  • Website: www.ifes.org

Carter Center

  • Establishment: In 1982 by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter and his wife Rossalyn.
  • Funding: Donations from multilateral development assistance programs as well as individuals, foundations and corporations.  The current annual operating budget is approximately $36 million.
  • Mission: Motivated by a “fundamental commitment to human rights and the alleviation of human suffering”, the Carter Center seeks to prevent and resolve conflicts, enhance freedom and democracy, and improve health.
  • Profile
    • The Center is based in Atlanta, Georgia, USA.  It is associated with Emory University, governed by an independent board of trustees and advised by a Board of Councilors. Field representatives are based in Africa, Eastern Europe, South America and Central America.
    • The Carter Center is guided by five principles: timely action and results based on careful research and analysis; not duplicating the efforts of others; addressing difficult problems and accepting the risk of failure; nonpartisanship and
      neutrality; and the belief “that people can improve their lives when provided with the necessary skills, knowledge, and access to resources.”
    • The Center runs five Peace Programs with significant democracy-building components: the Americas Program, the
      Conflict Resolution Program, the Democracy Program, the Global Development Initiative, and the Human Rights Initiative.
    • In the Middle East, the Carter Center works in Egypt, Israel and the Palestinian Territories, Syria, Jordan and Yemen to mediate conflict, monitor elections, and promote human rights.
  • Website: www.cartercenter.org

Research Triangle Institute

  • Establishment: In 1958, leaders from business, government and universities founded RTI as a research organization
  • Funding: RTI works with a wide variety of clients, including over a dozen government agencies, numerous private businesses, private foundations, international organizations, U.S. state governments, multilateral development banks, and foreign
    governments.
  • Mission: RTI is “dedicated to improving the human condition through cutting-edge study and analysis in health, drug discovery and development, the environment, education and training, economic and social development, advanced technology, and international development.”
  • Profile
    • RTI offers policy support, research and analysis, and technical expertise in strategic planning, institutional development, performance management, information systems and training.  It offers its services at the national, subnational and local levels, and emphasizes institutional development through the transferal of tools and methods.
    • Headquartered in Research Triangle Park, North Caroline with regional offices across the United States, RTI also has international offices in Dubai, Indonesia, the United Kingdom, South Africa, and El Salvador, with a subsidiary in Poland.
    • In the Middle East, RTI has conducted work in conflict management, mitigation and reconstruction, local governance, decentralization, waste management, education and health in countries such as Iraq, Morocco, Tunisia, Jordan and Egypt.
  • Website: www.rti.org

For-profit Organizations

Chemonics

  • Establishment: Founded by Thurston Teele in 1975.
  • Funding: Chemonics contracts with a variety of U.S. government agencies, mostly USAID.
  • Mission: To promote meaningful change around the world and help people live “healthier, more productive
    and more independent lives.”  In its work, Chemonics aims to uphold the values of caring, excellence, innovation, integrity and opportunity.
  • Profile
    • Chemonics conducts projects in agriculture/agribusiness, democracy & governance, environment, finance & banking, crisis prevention & recovery, and private sector development.
    • In the Middle East, Chemonics runs projects aimed at election monitoring, a vibrant media, infrastructure
      building, resource conservation, microfinance, financial markets, democracy, tourism, women’s issues, pollution, information technology and civil society in countries such as Egypt, Morocco, Jordan, Palestine, and Iraq.
  • Website: www.chemonics.com

Development Alternatives, Inc.

  • Establishment: In 1970, originally to focus on research, evaluation and design of rural development and agriculture projects.
  • Funding: DAI contracts with USAID, the World Bank, bilateral development agencies, global corporations and host country governments.
  • Mission: DAI aims to provide “social and economic development solutions to business, government, and civil society in developing and transitioning countries.”
  • Profile
    • Based in Maryland, DAI maintains operating companies in South Africa, London, Brazil and Palestine.  DAI moved into implementation of development projects in the 1980s, and has since sought to provide services that meets and anticipates the needs of clients, to remain flexible and responsive, and to draw on relevant development experience.
    • In the Middle East have focused on water resources, environmental restoration, financial accounting, microfinance, business climates, enterprise development, information technology, legislative strengthening and fiscal reform in areas such as the West Bank and Gaza, Morocco, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq and Egypt.
  • Website: www.dai.com

Now go and blame it all on someone else.